- Hide menu

Gandomak Agreement

A rapid succession of events occurred in the region that was affected and was affected by the Derand Line Agreement, in the middle of 19.1900, Hazrat Bahar, who writes for Khaama Press, properly described: in the 1860s, the Russians intensified their progress in the Southeast. “The Russian Foreign Minister said that Russian movements in Central Asia had simply brought Russia together and not to oppose another government.” [7] In 1872, Russia signed an agreement with Britain that accepts respect for Afghanistan`s northern borders. [8] King Sher Ali allowed an unsolicited Russian delegate to enter Kabul in July 1878. In the hope of retaining British influence, on 14 August, British Viceroy Lord Lytton ordered a diplomatic mission to visit Kabul. When no response was given, the British sent a military force to cross the Khyber Pass. The Afghan authorities refused the British permission to cross. This incident sparked the second Anglo-Afghan war. On November 21, 1878, about 40,000 British soldiers invaded Afghanistan. The British withdrew two years later after encountering strong opposition from Afghan forces. In 1905, Amir Abdur Rahman Khan`s son and his successor Amir Habibullah renewed the Durand Line agreement.

And when Afghanistan fought British India for independence and the abolition of its status as a “protectorate state” and in 1919 won the son and successor of Amir Habibullah`s King Amanullah Khan, he accepted the 1905 terms “border” wisely. After the signing of the Durand Line agreement, people went crazy. The Pashtuns set fire to the British Boundary Commission office in the small town of Wana, near the Durand Line, and protests, unrest and instability intensified. The Pashtuns did not want this border, they did not want to be divided between two governments when they were previously governed under one. The British sent 60,000 soldiers, To calm tensions over the agreement.8 Well described by the story of Mary Schons, “[t]hroughout history, colonial troops like the British set limits that create great tensions for the people who lived in the colony” – because of the lack of British consideration of how they influenced the tribal areas that lived in the area where the Durand Line was cut. , many “battles” were fought at the time and today, because the inhabitants of the border did not want to live under this domination.9 The beginning of the end came on the 6th. On January 1, 1842, when the British and Indian garrison 4,500 soldiers, including 690 Europeans, and 12,000 women, children and civil bailiffs after an alleged agreement with the Ameers guaranteeing a safe behavior of India, marched out of the cantons and began the terrible journey to the KhyberPass and further into India. What complicates matters is that at the international level, the Durand Line agreement seemed very informal and flippant and had never been registered with the British Parliament or the United Nations.

How can we now recognize the Durand Line as the official border of Afghanistan and Pakistan, when it has never been recognized as a formal agreement, for example to be brought to the international level of the United Nations? The author and historian Bijan Omrani brings a different perspective on the claim to the legality of the Durand line: “International agreements have two types of clauses, `executory` and `executed`, which describe a continuous act and an act that can only be done once […] the clause of the 1893 Durand contract appeared to be enforceable and unenforceable… “13 That is, either British India (or its successor) or Afghanistan could challenge the agreement at any time during its duration. Is the Durand Line contract of 1893 legal and valid? The agreement that has marked the entire contemporary history of Afghanistan? In 1884, Russian troops conquered the oasis of Merve inhabited by the Turcomans.

Comments are closed.